Plant-Based Diet Reverses Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
OBJECtIVE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by impaired arterial circulation to the extremities caused in part by atherosclerosis. This study examined the effect of a plant-based diet (PBD) on vascular function in PAD patients.
METHODs: Patients with PaD were randomized to plant-based dietary intervention (PBD group, n = 24) or no specific dietary advice (control group, n = 28). Biochemical parameters, including lipid profile and inflammatory biomarkers, and nitric oxide were measured at baseline and 4 months after dietary intervention. Vascular function including brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness
(IMT), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and brachial-ankle PWV were measured at baseline and 4 months after dietary intervention.
RESULTS: Biochemical parameters were similar at baseline between the 2 groups. There was no change in any of the biochemical parameters in the control group at 4 months. However, patients in the PBD group had a significant improvement in lipid profile, including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein a1 (APO-A1) levels. Greater nitric oxide and reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were found in the PBD group at 4 months, whereas there were no changes in the control group. at baseline, FMD was similar between the 2 groups. after 4 months, PBD participants showed significant endothelial function improvement in FMD response and arterial stiffness response, with increased carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle PWV compared to the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: A plant-based diet improves vascular endothelial function in PaD patients following 4 months of dietary intervention. This dietary intervention can result in decreased serum cholesterol and inflammatory biomarkers, which may further enhance vascular endothelial function.
KEYWORDS: Plant-based diet; Vascular endothelial function; Flow-mediated dilation; Brachial artery reactivity test