Dietary Protein and Its Associations with Cardiovascular Health


  • Koushik Reddy Division of Cardiology, James A Haley VA Medical Center and University of South Florida. Tampa, Florida, USA
  • Andrew M. Freeman Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA
  • Robert Ostfeld Division of Cardiology, Montefiore Health System, Bronx, New York, USA
  • Karen Aspry Division of Cardiology, Brown University Alpert Medical School, and Lifespan Hospitals, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
  • Kathleen Allen Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
  • James O'Keefe University of Missouri–Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
  • Dean Ornish Preventive Medicine Research Institute, Sausalito, California and University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California. USA
  • Travis Batts Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
  • Monica Aggarwal Division of Cardiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  • Beth White Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School
  • Hena Patel Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • Elizabeth Klodas . Preventive Cardiology Clinic, 4100 Minnesota Drive #310, Edina, Minnesota, USA
  • Susan Levin Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington D.C, USA.
  • Dae Hyun Lee Division of Cardiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.
  • Kim A. Williams, Sr Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.



An adequate intake of dietary protein is critical to human health and, as a result, protein is the only macronutrient with a recommended daily allowance. Yet, compared to fat and carbohydrate sources, the impact of dietary protein sources on human and cardiovascular health has received far less attention. However, consistent data from large prospective cohort studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia have consistently documented reduced risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in individuals with the highest consumption of plant proteins, and an increased risk of IHD in those with the highest intake of animal proteins. Which cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are most impacted is less clear. Mechanistic studies are limited by the fact that, like other macronutrients, protein in the human diet comes from a myriad of sources with varying proportions of non-protein micro and macronutrients that have independent influences on the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, growing evidence suggests that both non-protein and protein components of plant vs. animal protein sources may confer ASCVD protection or risk, and that inflammation and the gut microbiome play crucial roles.




How to Cite

Reddy, K., Freeman, A. M., Ostfeld, R., Aspry, K., Allen, K., O’Keefe, J., Ornish, D., Batts, T., Aggarwal, M., White, B., Patel, H., Klodas, E., Levin, S., Lee, D. H., & Williams, K. A. (2022). Dietary Protein and Its Associations with Cardiovascular Health. International Journal of Disease Reversal and Prevention, 4(1), 15 pp.