A Nutritional Assessment of Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease
Keywords:Chronic Kidney Disease, CKD, nutrition, renal diet, dietary analysis
Objective: Dietary guidelines from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) are advised to individuals with mid-spectrum (stages G3a and G3b) chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet typical diets in individuals with CKD remain understudied. The purpose of this study is to assess the self-reported dietary pattern of subjects with diagnosed mid-spectrum CKD and compare the normal dietary intakes to the KDOQI and USDA recommendations.
Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 20 participants with mid-spectrum CKD (n = 6 male [M]; n = 14 female [F]) was conducted to assess subjects’ self-reported dietary intakes for an average of 5 days. Micro and macronutrient analyses were compared to the KDOQI and USDA guidelines by sex to assess nutrition, and an exploratory stepwise multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of poor renal function;
p-values were considered significant at the α = 0.05 level.
Results: All subjects met the recommended caloric intake, but the average consumptions of protein (F = 0.86 ± 0.29g/kg body weight/day, M = 1.18 ± 0.45g/kg body weight/day), saturated fat (F = 12.17 ± 2.28%, M = 13.86 ± 1.20%), and sodium (F = 3.78 ± 2.51g, M = 4.21 ± 0.39g) were high (p < 0.05 for all). The average fiber intake
was low (F = 13.64 ± 4.09g, M = 14.82 ± 7.28g) as well as folate, vitamins D and K, zinc, and calcium intakes compared with the recommendations (p < 0.05 for all). The only significant contributor to higher renal function in the exploratory regression analysis was male sex (p = 0.035).